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Editorial Standards

Numbers and Numerical References


Graduation Year

When referring to a graduate of the university, include that last two digits of the class year (preceded by an apostrophe) following the person's name.

Example: Susan S. Smith '94

Page Numbers

As a general rule, numbers from one to nine should be written out; numbers 10 and over should be left in numerical form. Use figures, however, when referring to sections of a book, grade point averages, age, percentages and scores.


  • See page 6.
  • A GPA of 3.
  • A total of 5 percent.
  • An ACT score of 9.
  • He is 4 years old.


When referring to percentages, do not use "%" except in tables and technical text.

Example: More than 20 percent passed the test with a score of 85 or better.

Ordinal Numbers

Spell out ordinal numbers first through ninth. Numbers above the 10th ordinal may use figures.

Examples: First, second, 10th, 23rd, 31st

Phone Numbers

In a telephone number, use a dash to separate its components (e.g. to separate the area code from the prefix.)

Example: 657-278-8489


When referring to a specific time, drop the minutes if that time is on the hour. Use noon and midnight, not 12 p.m. or 12 a.m.


  • 8:15 p.m.
  • 10-11 a.m.
  • The event begins at noon.