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Editorial Standards


As a general rule, avoid most abbreviations in university publications.


All-Capital Abbreviations

All-capital abbreviations do not take periods except when referring to nations, states, cities or persons. Academic degrees, however, should be abbreviated with periods with no spaces in between.

Example: The dean is Joan Jones, Ph.D. (Avoid using Ph.D. — or use per AP Style as noted — when possible. The use of doctorate is preferred in news content.)

Lowercase Abbreviations

Abbreviations consisting of lowercase letters usually take periods with no spaces in between.

Example: a.m., p.m., c.o.d. 


Spell out the name of an organization on first reference. Do not follow an organization's name with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes. If an abbreviation or acronym would not be clear on second reference without this arrangement, do not use it.

Example: The Career Development Center received a grant from the Western College Placement Association to study the current job market. The CDC will begin research as soon as the WCPA funds are received.